Artiklar & forskningsrapporter

Vetenskapliga artiklar är granskade av erfarna forskare och är här märkta med ”peer –reviewed”. Artiklar märkta med * finns inte tillgängliga online som gratis artikel, vid intresse går det att köpa artikeln genom att betala respektive tidskrift.


A.T. Sharp a, N.-C. Liu d, A. Guy c, J.F. Ladlow b (2024-02-23). The mobility of the brachycephalic canine nostril in relation to the degree of nostril stenosis

Ravn-Mølby EM, Sindahl L, Nielsen SS, Bruun CS, Sandøe P, Fredholm M. Breeding French bulldogs so that they breathe well-A long way to go. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0226280. Published 2019 Dec 16. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0226280. Peer-reviewed.

* Riggs J, Liu NC, Sutton DR, Sargan D, Ladlow JF. Validation of exercise testing and laryngeal auscultation for grading brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in pugs, French bulldogs, and English bulldogs by using whole-body barometric plethysmography. Vet Surg. 2019 Jan 21. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13159. Peer-reviewed.

* Ladlow J, Liu N-C, Kalmar L, Sargan DR. Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome. Veterinary Record. 2018;182(13):375-378  Peer-reviewed.

Liu N-C, Adams VJ, Kalmar L, Ladlow JF, Sargan DR. Whole-body barometric plethysmography characterizes upper airway obstructions in 3 brachycephalic breeds of dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2016;30(3): 853-865 Peer-reviewed.

Liu N-C, Sargan DR, Adams VJ, Ladlow JF (2015). Characterisation of Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome in French Bulldogs Using Whole-Body Barometric Plethysmography. PLoS One 2015;10(6): e0130741. Peer-reviewed.

Dr Göran Bodegård, MD. Prof. Åke Hedhammar, DVM. The Brachycephalic Syndrome – New knowledge emphasizing the importance and responsibility of the dog show judge.

* Oechtering, Gerhard. Brachycephalic syndrome-new information on an old congenital disease. Veterinary focus 20.2 (2010): 2-9.


Steven De Decker, Cecilia Rohdin, Rodrigo Gutierrez-Quintana, The Veterinary Journal 304, 2024
Vertebral and spinal malformations in small brachycephalic dog breeds: Current knowledge and remaining questions

* Ekenstedt, K. J., Crosse, K. R., & Risselada, M. (2020). Canine Brachycephaly: Anatomy, Pathology, Genetics and Welfare. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 176, 109–115. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2020.02.008. Peer-reviewed.

* Jones BA, Stanley BJ. Nelson NC. The impact of tongue dimension on air volume in brachycephalic dogs. Vet. Surg. 2019 Jul 30. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13302 Peer-reviewed.

Liu NC, Troconis EL, Kalmar L, Price DJ, Wright HE, Adams VJ, Sargan DR, Ladlow JF. Conformational risk factors of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) in pugs, French bulldogs, and bulldogs. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 1;12(8):e0181928. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181928. eCollection 2017. Peer-reviewed.

Packer R.M.A, Andricks A. Tivers MS, Gurn CC. Impact of Facial Conformation on Canine Health: Brachycephalic Obstructiove Airway Syndrome. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10): e0137496. Peer-reviewed.

Utvecklingen under det senaste århundradet för brakycefala raser


Maria Dimopoulo, Jane Ladlow et al, publicerad 30 maj 2023. The epidemiology of upper respiratory tract disorders in a population of insured Swedish dogs (2011–2014), and its association to brachycephaly

Dan G. O´Niell et al. English Bulldogs in the UK: a VetCompass study of their disorder predispositions and protections samt sammanfattning av denna studie, VetCompass

Dan G. O´ Neill, et al, May 2022 Health of Pug dogs in the UK: disorder predispositions and protections
Sammanfattning från VetCompass av ovanstående rapport.

Packer et al. “Great expectations, inconvenient truths, and the paradoxes of the dog-owner relationship for owners of brachycephalic dogs” Published: July 19, 2019 Peer-reviewed.

Fawcett A, Barrs V, Awad M, et al. Consequences and Management of Canine Brachycephaly in Veterinary Practice: Perspectives from Australian Veterinarians and Veterinary Specialists. Animals (Basel). 2018;9(1):3. Published 2018 Dec 21. doi:10.3390/ani9010003 Peer-reviewed.

* Hinchliffe TA, Liu N-C, Ladlow J. Sleep-disordered breathing in the Cavalier King Charles spaniel: A case series. Vet Surg. 2018 Dec 28. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13148. Peer-reviewed.

* Salgüero R, Herrtage M, Holmes M, Mannion P, Ladlow JF. Comparison between computed tomographic characteristics of the middle ear in nonbrachycephalic and brachycephalic dogs with obstructive airway syndrome. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound. 2016;57(2):137-43. doi: 10.1111/vru.12337 Peer-reviewed.

Packer RM, Tivers MS. Strategies for the management and prevention of conformation-related respiratory disorders in brachycephalic dogs. Vet Med (Auckl). 2015;6:219–232. Published 2015 Jun 4. doi:10.2147/VMRR.S60475 Peer-reviewed.

Packer, R. M. A., A. Hendricks, and C. C. Burn. "Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as' normal' for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare." Animal Welfare-The UFAW Journal 21.1 (2012): 81. Peer-reviewed.

Niels Pedersen et al, 2016. A genetic assessment of the English bulldog

“Do dog owners perceive the clinical signs related to conformational inherited disorders as ‘normal’ for the breed? A potential constraint to improving canine welfare.” Populärvetenskaplig artikel baserad på artikeln ovan. Reviewed by Stephanie Lushniak

”Study reveals flat faced dogs really are less healthy than other dogs” Royal Veterinary College, England. Publicerad oktober 2020. Peer-reviewed

Health problems among flat faced dogs perception and reality


"Stop and think before buying a flat-faced dog": French Bulldog no longer a 'typical' dog Sammandrag Royal Veterinary College